Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. It is a broad term that encompasses various conditions, with the most common ones being coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension.

Cardiovascular diseases are a significant global health concern and a leading cause of death.

Key aspects of cardiovascular disease:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients (coronary arteries) become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis). This can lead to chest pain (angina) or, in severe cases, a heart attack.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood effectively, leading to a reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues. It can result from various underlying conditions, including CAD, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy.


Stroke occurs when there is a disruption of blood flow to the brain, either due to a blocked blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). High blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and other risk factors contribute to the development of stroke.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Hypertension is a condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. Over time, it can lead to damage to blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.


These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. Conditions like atrial fibrillation can increase the risk of stroke and other heart-related problems.

Several risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, including:

  • Smoking
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Lack of Physical Inactivity
  • Family History
  • Age

Preventing cardiovascular disease often involves lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, quitting smoking, and managing underlying conditions like hypertension and diabetes. Medications, medical procedures, and surgeries may also be recommended, depending on the specific condition and its severity.

Regular check-ups with Singleton Medical Centre and Skin Clinic’s healthcare providers are crucial for early detection and management of risk factors and symptoms related to cardiovascular disease.